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Connecticut Streamflow Overview and Drought Conditions

Connecticut Streamflow Overview

Know Your Flow!

Click on any graphic below for more information
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High Flow    Low Flow
[color code for]
CT Current Streamflow. Click to go to source page.
Streamflow in CT (click to go to the data page)
Current US Drought Conditions. Click to open source page.
The U.S. Drought Monitor is jointly produced by the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, the United States Department of Agriculture, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Map courtesy of NDMC-UNL.
Link to Burlington Brook flow data
Streamflow at a typical CT stream.
Link to NWS graphic page
Check your forecast here.
Graphic courtesy NOAA NWS showing CT area watches and warnings if any.

Wednesday Sep 30, 2015:  heavy rain will rapidly change stream conditions; may not help long term low flows.

Whenever there is a powerful storm, watch for flooding! Flash flooding can easily take people by surprise after dry periods. Remember, if water is across the road, Turn Around, Don't Drown! See below for general flooding information.

Although streamflow up to this week in Connecticut has been dangerously low (continuing the pattern described here on Labor Day), rivers and streams are now rising rapidly and many may hit flood stage.  Before this week, rains have not provided even average precipitation over most of the state. We may even get the FOUR inches of rain by the end of the week that would bring 60 day precipitation up to normal, THEN get hit with a tropical storm! But when rain falls as heavy downpours much of it does not contribute to groundwater supplies.  The long-term forecast predicts little, if any rain after this week. Many public water systems have asked for voluntary restrictions on water use (see below).   Fortunately for water companies, heavy rain does get captured by reservoirs and this is why reservoir capacity did not drop as fast as the flow in more free flowing streams, but even they were beginning to see the effects of the long dry spell (discussion below).  Unfortunately, even during low flows, local flooding can occur (also below) when a heavy rain hits unusually dry ground. Although flows obviously rise during and after storms, they drop rapidly when groundwater levels are low (see groundwater discussion below). Smaller upland streams dry up faster than the larger rivers (see the graph below).

Is this a true drought? The U.S. Drought Monitor weekly map for Sep 15 labeled 64% of CT as "D1-Moderate Drought", up from 37% the week before. This is the highest percentage in this category of any northeast state. The rest of the state is labeled as "D0-Abnormally Dry". No other northeast state is 100% drought-affected.  Even general news media are starting to notice.

Conditions may get worse. The NWS Climate Prediction Center's October forecast gives us a 40% to 50% chance of below normal precipitation, a 33% chance of normal precipitation, and only 17% to 27% chance of the above normal precipitation we would need to keep our streams healthy. This is ominous. Usually these forecasts give us more hope for rain.

Groundwater: Streamflow between storms depends on groundwater levels. The water under the ground (aquifer water) flows downward and comes back to the surface in streams and wetlands. A low-flow stream drains water from the ground in most cases, but if the ground is exceptionally dry the flow may reverse. An occasional brief, powerful rainstorm does not do much to help groundwater levels rise. The rain falls faster than the ground can absorb, and thus much of it becomes stormwater runoff. Real-time data on groundwater in Connecticut is available from 7 monitoring wells run by the US Geological Service (USGS). Falling water tables are normal for summer. But before the heavy rain Sep 30, all 7 USGS wells are at levels below (in 4 cases well below) their daily averages for this time of year. Moreover, the levels have been dropping unusually quickly. The data are even more striking because the records cover only the last 6 to 12 years, when prolonged dry spells were already common. The Durham well, the
Greenwich well, and the Marlborough well were at levels lower than any for the past six years. Two wells were below average but not at drought levels yet.

Public Water Supplies: Several towns in CT have issued water restrictions. At the end of August, the CT Department of Health (DPH) issued a letter to public water systems in which they caution them to:

... keep a watch over the groundwater levels and surface water levels, assess the current capacity to maintain adequate supply & pressure, and as necessary institute water conservation plan and/or measures in order to effectively reduce water consumption. You may want to consider enacting voluntary water conservation measures while our state continues to be within the present weather situation.

Reservoirs provide about 2/3 of our water supply. In August, the public water supply reservoirs of the largest companies averaged 80% full, down from 90% in July. However, that July report did not include data from MDC, Middletown Water Company or Bristol Water Company. The August report states that Bristol Water has asked for voluntary water restrictions; their reserve was down to 70%.   Southington reported 30% usable storage in August (down from 60% in July) but has withdrawn its voluntary water restrictions. UCONN's water department has issued mandatory conservation measures. The Manchester Water Department website reported 68.3% capacity as of Sep 21 and the same page says they would issue an Alert at 80% and an Advisory at 70%.  Overall, of the 34 water companies listed by DPH, 7 reported below 90% of normal August capacity. Aquarion Water Company is asking its customers to voluntarily conserve water and stop non-essential outdoor water use. We have listed websites for many of the hundreds of water systems below if you want to check for water restrictions. Other water restriction sources include your towns website, your health district, and news outlets.


On Sep 21, 40 out of 53 (74%) of our ranked rivers and streams had less water flowing in them than 75% of their recorded flows for the date. 25 of those are lower than 90% of all their records, 8 are lower than all records for that date.


Here is a list of stream gages on the USGS map of Connecticut streamflow from Sep 24, 2015 that were showing flow rates that were close to their lowest recorded average for that date. To see their current status, click on the stream name. Those in bold were below the lowest daily average recorded for that station.
Bunnell (Burlington) Brook near Burlington.
Byram River at Pemberwick (Greenwich).
Coginchaug River at Middlefield (Middletown).
Cross River near Cross River, NY.
Croton River East Branch near Putnam Lake, NY.
Eightmile River East Branch near North Lyme.
Eightmile River at North Plain.
Farmington River at Tarriffville.
Farmington River West Branch near New Boston, MA.
French River at North Grosvenordale.
Housatonic River near Ashley Falls, MA.
Housatonic River near Great Barrington, MA.
Indian River near Clinton.
Little River at Harrisville.
Little River near Hanover (Plainfield).
Mill River near Hamden.
Mount Hope River near Warrenville (Ashford).
Naugatuck River at Beacon Falls.
Naugatuck River at Thomaston.
Norwalk River at South Wilton.
Nipmuc River near Harrisville, RI.
Park River North Branch at Hartford.
Pawcatuck River at Westerly, RI.
Pawcatuck River at Wood River Junction, RI.
Pendelton Hill Brook near Clarks Falls (North Stonington).
Pomperaug River at Southbury.
Pootatuck River at Berkshire (Newtown).
Pootatuck River at Sandy Hook (Newtown).
Quinebaug River below E Brimfield Dam at Fiskdale, MA.
Quinebaug River below Westville Dam near Southbridge, MA.
Quinebaug River at Quinebaug.
Quinebaug River at Putnam.
Quinebaug River at West Thompson.
Quinnipiac River at Southington.
Quinnipiac River at Wallingford.
Pendelton Hill Brook Near Clarks Falls.
Ridgefield Brook at Shields Lane near Ridgefield.
Rippowam River at Stamford.
Rooster River at Fairfield.
Salmon River near East Hampton.
Sasco Brook near Southport.
Saugatuck River near Redding.
Still River at Robertsville.
Still River at Route 7 at Brookfield Center.
Shetucket River at Taftville (Norwich).
Shetucket River near Willimantic.
Stoney Brook near West Suffield.
Weekeepeemee River at Hotchkissville (Woodbury).
Willimantic River at Merrow Rd. (Mansfield).
Willimantic River near Coventry.
Yantic River at Yantic.

This graph plots the rate of flow on Sep 4 as a percentage of the median for each stream gage. For example, a dot at the 40% line means that stream that day was flowing at 40% of what could be considered normal for that date. The few rivers and streams flowing at or above 100% of their median rate are mostly those with flows managed by dam releases.

More about our rainfall: At the beginning of July, regular rainfall brought most of our rivers and streams back to the normal pattern of varying above and below the average flows measured for any particular date (see an explanation for this below). However, below-normal rainfall has caused a steady decrease in steamflow punctuated by occasional spikes in the flow rates from thunderstorms. According to the Advanced Hydrological Prediction Service of the National Weather Service, rainfall during the last 30 days has been near or a little above average only along the paths of recent storm cells.  Most of the state has received between 25% to 75% what we normally have at this time of year. The last 60 days of precipitation records shows about half of the state receiving under 75% of normal.

Our total rainfall has been below normal for a long time. The last 90 days, 180 days, even back to last October shows why we are still experiencing long-term near-drought conditions. It is the long-term rainfall totals that control groundwater levels, which in turn keep streams flowing between storms.

Some General Flood Information: When floodwaters fill the part of the stream channel that is called a floodplain, the water may find that someone has built a building or two in the channel. The water then saturates and fills any leach fields, often flushing untreated sewage out into the flow.

The floodwaters also find these really nice holes in the ground called wells to flow down into. All kinds of interesting things can be delivered to the bottom of the well, such as the aforementioned sewage, and soil, bugs, leaves, pesticides such as weed killer and insect poison, even the dog droppings from the backyard.

Very important: Any well that was flooded should be pumped and flushed out thoroughly and the system sanitized or "shocked."

June 1982 East Lyme, CT

Photo courtesy NOAA

The Connecticut Department of Health website has a good guide called:

Flooding: Information for Homeowners About Private Wells, Sewage and Clean-Up

Also, there are places in Connecticut where the storm drains and the sewage pipes are combined into one system. With high rainfall, many of these combined pipes are designed to overflow into rivers and streams so the wastewater treatment plants are not overwhelmed. You really do not want to be downstream when raw untreated human sewage is entering the water. The DEEP has a map of Combined Sewer Overflows that shows the six urban areas where these can occur. Zoom in to any of them to see exactly where the combined flow may enter streams and rivers. Not every rain event is enough to cause these overflows, but it's a good idea to avoid contact with the water downstream from them after significant rain.

Unless you are an expert paddler, do not attempt to canoe or kayak on floodwaters; there are usually one or two fatalities per year. Our Connecticut Water Trails website and the webpages of the many paddler groups in the state all have good safety procedures. 

Link to Aug 13, 2014 CT heavy rainfall effect on streamflow graphics courtesy USGS and NOAA.Streamflow Graphs and Storms

As the graphic to the right illustrates, where a storm moves across the state, the streams show flows that peak above their averages for this time of year but then quickly drop. The streams that maintain healthy flows between storms are those draining the parts of the state where there has been decent rainfall or those controlled by managed dams.

How quickly the flow drops after each rainstorm is unique for each stream, because it depends on how much water soaked in to increase the groundwater baseflow. In watersheds with lots of impervious roads, roofs, parking lots, patios, and compacted soil in lawns, a lot of the rain typically flows over the surface or through storm drains directly into the streams, leading to flooding problems far more often than in watersheds with mostly natural surfaces. Their streamflow then drops quickly after the storm ends, and the flow levels off far lower than in streams whose watersheds have more natural surfaces.

What IS Normal?

The National Oceanic and Admospheric Administration (NOAA) uses a rolling 30-year average of modern rainfall data to calculate its "normals." A discussion of the 1981 to 2010 precipitation calculations can be found at http://prism.oregonstate.edu/normals. To see Connecticut's average annual precipitation, go to http://prism.oregonstate.edu/gallery/view.php?state=CT_RI.

Recently there has been much discussion of what constitutes a "100-year-storm" or a "50-year storm." These traditional terms can be misleading unless you keep in mind they are an old-fashioned way of describing probablities. A "100-year" rainfall event means that in any year there is a 1% chance of that rate of rainfall.

Here is a map showing that in Connecticut we have a 1% chance of getting 7 to a little over 8 inches of rain in a 24-hour period, depending on where you are in the state. (Image source: http://precip.eas.cornell.edu/)

Comparing this to Table 7.2 (copy below) of the CT Stormwater Manual, we note that the design criteria for managing runoff possibly should be updated if we are building our landscape to control the flow from a 100-year-storm.


Drought pics

Photos by Joan Smith GOSA taken 9/20/2015 at The Merritt Family Forest in Groton. The stone slab bridge lies over Eccleston Brook, which had only a few puddles despite last week's downpour. The muddy bottom is also part of EB, further downstream. The photo with the two upright stone slabs is Cowslip Brook, a tributary to EB, and the wooden bridge traverses another small tributary to EB, flowing from a vernal pool. Used with permission.


More Links:

State of CT - Drought (Search)

State of CT Water Status website

USGS Connecticut DroughtWatch

Water Conservation tips

Water Conservation is not just for droughts; it is important because:

  • It saves money and energy

  • It insures the reliability of your water supply

  • It protects our natural resources

What Can I Do?

  • Set a voluntary water use reduction goal of 10% (whether served by public water systems or private wells)

  • Cut back on unnecessary water use, such as watering lawns or washing cars

  • Cooperate with your local water utility and follow their plans

Model Water Use Restriction Ordinance (PDF, 28KB)

Connecticut's Draft Drought Management Plan is being updated by the CT Water Planning Council Advisory Group Drought Plan Work Group.

*On the USGS Stream Gage map, streams lower than their 10th Percentile and have records longer than 30 years are indicated with a maroon dot. We choose rivers for our low-flow list by looking at all rivers and streams Most Recent Instantaneous Value compared with their Minimum Average Daily flow and their 25th Percentile rate. Those with a flow rate closer to their Minimum than to their 25th Percentile get added to the list.
Data Source


 Websites for Some of the Water Companies in CT

AVON WATER CO http://www.avonct.gov/about-avon/pages/utilities-and-services  AVON
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-CHIMNEY HEIGHTS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=BETHEL BETHEL
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-MAIN SYSTEM http://www.aquarion.com/alerts.cfm?city=Bridgeport BRIDGEPORT
BRISTOL WATER DEPARTMENT http://www.bristolwaterdept.org/ BRISTOL
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-BROOK ACRES http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=BROOKFIELD BROOKFIELD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-BROOKFIELD SYS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=BROOKFIELD BROOKFIELD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-OWSC BROOKWOOD http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=BROOKFIELD BROOKFIELD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-OWSC BUTTERNUT http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=BROOKFIELD BROOKFIELD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-CORNWALL SYSTEM http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=CORNWALL CORNWALL
CROMWELL FIRE DISTRICT WATER DEPARTMENT http://www.cromwellfd.org/Water_District.htm CROMWELL
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-CEDAR HEIGHTS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=DANBURY DANBURY
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-HOLLANDALE EST. http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=DANBURY DANBURY
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-KEN OAKS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=DANBURY DANBURY
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-PEARCE MANOR http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=DANBURY DANBURY
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-ROLLING RIDGE http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=DANBURY DANBURY
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-TLWC INDIAN SPRG http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=DANBURY DANBURY
DANBURY WATER DEPARTMENT http://www.ci.danbury.ct.us/content/21015/21087/21129/23057/default.aspx DANBURY
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-NOROTON SYSTEM http://www.aquarion.com/alerts.cfm?city=Darien DARIEN
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-EAST DERBY http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=DERBY DERBY
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-EAST HAMPTON DIV http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=EAST HAMPTON EAST HAMPTON
EAST LYME WATER & SEWER COMMISSION http://eltownhall.com/water-sewer-utilities/ EAST LYME
HAZARDVILLE WATER COMPANY http://www.hazardvillewater.com/index.php ENFIELD
CTWC - UNIONVILLE SYSTEM https://www.ctwater.com/ FARMINGTON
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-TLWC http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=GOSHEN GOSHEN
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-GREENWICH SYSTEM http://www.aquarion.com/alerts.cfm?city=Greenwich GREENWICH
GROTON UTILITIES http://www.grotonutilities.com/ GROTON
METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COMMISSION http://www.themdc.com/customers/customer-advisories HARTFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-KENT SYSTEM http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=KENT KENT
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-LEBANON DIVISION http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=LEBANON LEBANON
MASHANTUCKET PEQUOT TRIBAL NATION http://www.mptn-nsn.gov/tribaldepts.aspx LEDYARD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-CIRCLE DRIVE http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=LITCHFIELD LITCHFIELD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-LITCHFIELD SYS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=LITCHFIELD LITCHFIELD
MANCHESTER WATER DEPARTMENT http://waterandsewer1.townofmanchester.org/index.cfm/water-supply-status/ MANCHESTER
UNIVERSITY OF CONNECTICUT - MAIN CAMPUS http://today.uconn.edu/2015/09/uconn-issues-water-supply-watch/ MANSFIELD
MERIDEN WATER DIVISION http://www.cityofmeriden.org/Content/Water_Division_Information/ MERIDEN
MIDDLETOWN WATER DEPARTMENT http://www.cityofmiddletown.com/content/117/123/185/default.aspx MIDDLETOWN
NEW BRITAIN WATER DEPARTMENT http://www.newbritainct.gov/index.php/city-services/water-department/general-information.html NEW BRITAIN
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-NEW CANAAN SYS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW CANAAN NEW CANAAN
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-BALL POND SYS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW FAIRFIELD NEW FAIRFIELD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-OAKWOOD ACRES http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW FAIRFIELD NEW FAIRFIELD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-OWSC BIRCHES http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW FAIRFIELD NEW FAIRFIELD
REGIONAL WATER AUTHORITY http://www.rwater.com/stewardship/how-much-water-do-we-have/ NEW HAVEN
NEW LONDON DEPT. OF PUBLIC UTILITIES http://ci.new-london.ct.us/content/7429/7431/7459/default.aspx NEW LONDON
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-CARMEN HILL http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW MILFORD NEW MILFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-DEAN HEIGHTS SYS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW MILFORD NEW MILFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-FOREST HILLS SYS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW MILFORD NEW MILFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-INDIAN RIDGE http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW MILFORD NEW MILFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-MEADOWBROOK http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW MILFORD NEW MILFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-NEW MILFORD http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW MILFORD NEW MILFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-PARK GLEN SYSTEM http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW MILFORD NEW MILFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-PLEASANT VIEW http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW MILFORD NEW MILFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-TWIN OAKS SYSTEM http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEW MILFORD NEW MILFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-CHESTNUT TREE http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEWTOWN NEWTOWN
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-NEWTOWN SYSTEM http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEWTOWN NEWTOWN
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-OWSC http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NEWTOWN NEWTOWN
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-NORFOLK SYSTEM http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NORFOLK NORFOLK
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-NORTH CANAAN SYS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=NORTH CANAAN NORTH CANAAN
NORWALK FIRST TAXING DISTRICT http://www.firstdistrictwater.org/en_US/news/5/26/No-Alert NORWALK
NORWICH PUBLIC UTILITIES http://norwichpublicutilities.com/for-my-business/services-business/80-water#Water NORWICH
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-HAWKSTONE SYSTEM http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=OXFORD OXFORD
VALLEY WATER SYSTEMS, INC. http://www.valleywatersystems.com/ PLAINVILLE
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-SALISBURY SYS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=SALISBURY SALISBURY
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-VALLEY SYSTEM http://www.aquarion.com/alerts.cfm?city=Seymour SEYMOUR
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-TIMBER TRAILS http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=SHERMAN SHERMAN
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-SIMSBURY SYSTEM http://www.aquarion.com/alerts.cfm?city=Simsbury SIMSBURY
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-LAKESIDE SYSTEM http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=SOUTHBURY SOUTHBURY
SOUTHINGTON WATER DEPARTMENT http://www.southington.org/content/17216/17776/default.aspx SOUTHINGTON
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-STAMFORD http://www.aquarion.com/alerts.cfm?city=Stamford STAMFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-MYSTIC http://www.aquarion.com/alerts.cfm?city=Mystic STONINGTON
TORRINGTON WATER COMPANY http://www.torringtonwater.com/index.html TORRINGTON
WALLINGFORD WATER DEPARTMENT http://www.town.wallingford.ct.us/Content/Water_and_Sewer_Divisions.asp WALLINGFORD
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-JUDEA DEPOT http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=WASHINGTON WASHINGTON
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-JUDEA MAIN http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=WASHINGTON WASHINGTON
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-QUARRY RIDGE http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=WASHINGTON WASHINGTON
WATERBURY WATER DEPARTMENT http://www.waterburyct.org/water WATERBURY
WATERFORD WPCA http://www.waterfordct.org/utilities WATERFORD
WINDHAM WATER WORKS http://www.windhamct.com/townhall_dept_waterworks.htm WINDHAM
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-TLWC CLEARVIEW http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=WOLCOTT WOLCOTT
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-TLWC WOODRICH http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=WOLCOTT WOLCOTT
AQUARION WATER CO OF CT-WOODBURY SYSTEM http://www.aquarionwater.com/alerts.cfm?city=WOODBURY WOODBURY

Rivers Alliance of Connecticut
PO Box 1797, 7 West Street 3rd Floor, Litchfield, CT 06759-1797
rivers@riversalliance.org, www.riversalliance.org